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Title: Technical and economic review of cement and lime process : a report to the Environment Agency
Author: Environment Agency
Document Type: Monograph
Abstract:
The aims of this study are to examine the technical options for controlling releases from cement and lime processes and their respective costs. The study also assesses the economic situation of the cement and lime industries and the ability of these industries to bear the costs of moving from typical release levels towards the achievable release level for a new process. The technical scope of the study is to to establish and assess: i) the pollutants emitted from the process; ii) the environmental impact of the pollutants released; iii) the abatement techniques available. The main pollutants from both cement and lime processes are releases to air of: particulates, NOx, S02 and CO2. Other pollutants such as dioxins and heavy metals are also present but in small quantities. The emissions and environmental impacts were considered on a near field, far field, and global basis. For both industries the near field impacts were found to be more significant than the far field and global impacts. While emissions to air from lime kilns are similar to those from cement kilns, there are a number of differences: cement kilns have a higher NOx production due to a higher process temperature; cement kilns have higher particulate emissions; the dust produced from the lime process is finer and more alkaline; lime kilns have a greater potential to produce and emit dioxins than cement kilns - this is due to their lower process temperature.
Publisher: Environment Agency
Publication Date: 1996
Publication Place: Bristol
Subject Keywords: Emissions; Pollutant emission; Industrial emission; Dust; Air pollution; Sulphur dioxide; Nitrous oxide; Carbon dioxide; Dioxins; Heavy metals; Techniques; Economic policies
Extent: 79; + appendices
Permalink: http://www.environmentdata.org/archive/ealit:1815
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