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Title: Best Available Techniques For The Control Of Pollution In Petrochemical And Large Volume Organic Chemical Processes
Author: Systems Limited Chem
Author: Environment Agency
Document Type: Monograph
Annotation: Environment Agency Project ID:EAPRJOUT_754, Representation ID: 586, Object ID: 2080
Abstract:
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Outline Scope. 2. METHODOLOGY 2.1 General 2.2 Current UK Practice 2.3 Best Available Technique Review 2.4 Economic Analysis of the Industry 3. UK-PROCESSES AND PRACTICES 3.1 General 3.2 Production Processes 3.3 Types of Releases 3.4 Abatement Techniques used in the UK 3.5. Release limits 3.6 Topics for further review 4. : REVIEW OF ABATEMENT,TECHNIQUES 4.1 General. 4.2 Review of Techniques used Worldwide 4.3 Review of Selected Techniques 4.4 Summary of review of Abatement Techniques 73 73. 74 98 139 5. REVIEW OF SELECTED 5.1 General :~ 5.2 Formaldehyde 5.3 Polyolefins LDPE: 5.4 EDCNCMIPVC 5.5 Adipic Acid 5.6 Nitrobenzene/Aniline 5.7 Emulsion Polymers : 14lZ.a 141a 142 145 148 154 157 160 R and D Technical Report P18 1 PROCESSES 7 7 7 12 40 69: 71 SECTION 6. DESCRIPTION REVIEW OF ECONOMIC 6.1 General 6.2 Basic Petrochemicals 6.3 Formaldehyde 6.4 Polyolefins 6.5 EDCNCMYPVC 6.6 Emulsion Polymers 6.7 Nitrobenzenekuxiline 6.8 Sectoral Affordability R and D Technical Report P 18 1 PAGE NO FACTORS 163 163 165 176 179 188 196 198 200 LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO DESCRIPTION Table 1 Good practice: suggested techniques and principles Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table-3.5 Table 3.6 Petrochemical and Large Volume Organic Compound Processes Number of Plants Manufacturing Petrochemicals in the UK, 1996 Number of Plants Manufacturing Nitrogen Compounds in the UK Number of Plants Manufacturing Acids and Aldehydes in the UK Number of Plants Manufacturing Sulphur Compoundsin the-UK Number of Plants Manufacturing Monomers and Polymers intheUK: Petrochemical processes: types of release to air Petrochemical processes: types of release to water Petrochemical processes: types of release to land Acid and aldehyde processes: types of release to air Acid and aldehyde processes: types of release to. water Acid and aldehyde processes: types of release to land. Sulphur processes: types of release to air Sulphur processes: types of release to water. Sulphur processes: types of release to land .a Nitrogen processes: types of release to air Nitrogen processes: types of release to water Nitrogen processes: types of release to land : Monomer and polymer processes: types of release to-air. Monomer and polymer processes: types of release to water Monomer and polymer processes: types of release to land Atmospheric pollutants of interest Summary of control techniques: Petrochemical Processes Summary of control techniques: AckUAldehyde Processes Summary of control techniques: Sulphur Processes Summary of control techniques: Nitrogen.Processes Summary of control techniques: Monomers and Polymers Summary of control techniques: Monomers and Polymers (2). Achievable release limits for emissions to air: examples from current guidance notes Examples of authorised UK release limits (mg/ma) Table.3.7 Table.3.8 Table 3.9 Table 3.10 Table 3.11 Table 3.12 Table 3.13 Table 3.14 Table 3.15 Table 3.16 Table 3.17 Table 3.18 Table 3.19 Table 3.20 Table 3.21 Table 3.22 Table 3.23 Table 3.24 Table 3.25. Table 3.26 Table 3.27. Table 3.28 Table 3.29 Table 3.30 R and D Technical Report P 18 1 2. 8 9 10 10 11 11 13 15a 16. 17 18 1-9, 20 ., 21 22 23 25 26 27 30 32 38 41 45 49 51 56 60 69 70 PAGE NO DESCRIPTION Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table Table Table Table Table 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 VOC abatement technique review Combustion gases abatement techniques Abatement techniques: other emissions Wastewater treatment techniques Groundwater protection techniques Elements of costs of abatement Cost of VOC abatement Cost of VOC containment: storage and transfer Cost of incineration for a typical gas andearn Cost of adsorption of VOCs f?om a typical gas stream Cost of cryogenic condensation Recovery of VCM by membrane separation Cost of containment of fugitive VOCs End of pipe SO, control Cost of flue gas treatment for NOx control Cost of treatment of a high-organic effluent Cost of treatment of halogenated effluent Recovery of sodium sulphate by crystallation Cost of treatment of chlorinated organic wastes Good practice: suggested techniques and principles 74 85 87 88 93 98 99 102 107 112 115 119 122 125 128 131 133 134 136 140 Typical values of VOC component in catalytic incinerators Costs of abatement: formaldehyde production Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE): Summary of costs of pollution control ECVM environment standards Typical Adipic Acid Reaction Off-Gas Analysis Typical performance parameters for Catalytic Decomposition of N20 Cost of reduction of nitrous oxide Typical costs for abatement techniques, Aniline/Nitrobenzene 143 144 R and D Technical Report P 18 1 147 153 155 156 156 159 PAGE NO DESCRIPTION Table 6.1 Table 6.2. Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table-6.7 Table Table Table Table 6.8 6.9 a. 6.10 6.11 Table 6.12 Table 6.13 Table 6.14 Table 6.15 Table 6.16 Table Table Table Table Table 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20. 6.21 Table 6.22 Basic petrochemical manufacture in the UK(illustrative processes) Net UK Export (Import) for selected petrochemicals Cash costs of production for selected.basic petrochemicals, West European Leader plants, 1997 prices Difference between Leader and Laggard cash cost for selected petrochemicals, Western Europe, 1997 Prices Generic petrochemical plant a. Cost of abatement: generic petrochemical plant. Cash costs of production of formaldehyde, typical Western Europe, 1997 Costs of abatement: formaldehyde production i Polyolefin Manufacture in the UK Net UK ExporQmport) of polyolefins Cash cost of production for selected commodity polyolefins, Leader plants, Western Europe, 1997 Prices Difference between leader and laggard cash costs for polyolefins, Western Europe, 1997 Prices Costs of abatement: LDPE production EDCNCM/PVC Manufacture in the UK, 1997 Cash cost of production for EDCNCMIPVC, Leader plants, Western Europe, 1997 Prices Difference between leader and laggard cash costs for EDCNCNPVC, Western Europe, 1997 PricesCosts of abatement: EDCNCM production Costs of abatement: .PVC Cash costs of production for VAE, Westem.Europe, 1997 Costs of treatment of VOC abatement VAE plant Cash costs of production for nitrobenzene and aniline, typical, Western Europe, 1997 prices Costs of treatment of nitrobenzene strong effluent R and D Technical Report P 18 1 166. 167 168. 169 170 174 176 177a 179 180 181 181 186 188 190 a: 190 194 194 197 197 198 199 LIST OF FIGURES DESCRIPTION PAGE NO Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Cost of thermal oxidation at different energy recovery efficiencies Energy recovery: thermal oxidation Cost of thermal oxidation of VOC stream Cost of catalytic incineration of VOC stream Cost of removing VOC by carbon adsorption Membrane separation of VCM 105 106 109 110 113 118 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Formaldehyde Production: Metal Oxide Process Simplified LDPE Flow Diagram EDC/VCM/PVC production Simplified Nitric Acid Oxidation of KA Oil to Adipic Acid Potential emissions on simplified Nitrobenzene/Aniline process Simplified Vinyl Acetate Ethylene Latex production process 142 145 148 154 157 160 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 167 169 171 171 172 172 173 173 175 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 Profitability of West European petrochemical and polymer industry Cash cost curve for ethylene, Western Europe Cash cost margin for butadiene, Western Europe Cash cost margin for ethylene, Western Europe Cash cost margin for ethylene glycol, Western Europe Cash cost margin for ethylene oxide, Western Europe Cash cost margin for acrylonitrile, Western Europe Cash cost margin for styrene, Western Europe Cumulative cost of abatement measures: generic petrochemical plant Cost of abatement measures: formaldehyde plant (cumulative annual cost and cost per ton VOC) Cash cost curve for LLDPE, Western Europe Cash cost curve for HDPE, Western Europe Cash cost margin for LDPE, Western Europe Cash cost margin for LLDPE, Western Europe Cash cost margin for HDPE (impact), Western Europe Cash cost margin for HDPE (blow mould), Western Europe Cash cost margin for Polypropylene, Western Europe Cost of abatement measures: LDPE plant (cumulative cost per ton product and cost per ton VOC Cash cost (net of caustic) for chlorine, Western Europe Cash cost curve for EDC, Western Europe Cash cost curve for VCM, Western Europe Cash cost curve for PVC, Western Europe Cumulative cost of abatement: EDCNCM and PVC plants R and D Technical Report P 18 1 178 182 183 184 184 185 185 186 187 191 191 192 192 195 EXECUTIVE. SUMMARY The information presented in this report is intended to inform the revision of Integrated Pollution Control Guidance Notes for two categories of process: petrochemicals and large volume organic compounds.. The following topics are reviewed in the report: . type and sources of pollution:.fiom petrochemical and large volume organic plants, and typical methods of abatement -in the UK . available techniques for abatement of pollution from petrochemical organic compound processes, and their use internationally . economic background abatement. and large volume to the producer industry and the implications of costs of Suggestions are given in the. table overleaf of generic techniques and criteria that are suggested as BAT, based on the research performed. The focus is on organic compounds as being most characteristic of these processes. Minimisation of pollution, and internal recycling,.-are preferred methods of abatement and-these are shown on the table as general principles. One possibility identified in the report is that the cost per ton of VOC abated might provide a useful context to Inspectors. A method of calculating annualised cost and indicative ranges ofvalues are contained in the body of the report. A further point of note relates- to aqueous effluents, where the treatment plant is often outside : the -limit of the authorised -process. It is suggested that any effluent from process plants should be treatable by conventional,wastewater treatment to an acceptable level, but this has not been quantified. The economic analysis demonstrates the, cyclical nature of the business for many plants in the. category of petrochemicals and large volume organics. Costs of.abatement are put into the context of industry economics. It is recommended that,,, where possible, the costs of abatement are related to the economics of individual products and processes rather than of companies. The analysis in this area is only broadly indicative. R and D Project Report P 18 1.. .a Table 1 Good practice: suggested techniques and principles Type and source of pollution Abatement technique VOCs to air Storage tanks: volatile liquids Transfer of volatile liquids Controllable vents Fugitive emissions Intermittent emissions All VOC emissions Aqueous ejluents Ground protection Landwastes Internal or external floating roof tanks or fzed roof tanks to recovery or destruction Overfill prevention: level measurement and alarms, preferably auto cut-off Vapour balance lines Bottom tilling road/rail tankers Any net vapour displacement to recovery or destruction; maximum 3 5g/m3 outlet for VOCs (total) Abatement to achievable release concentrations for non-trivial quantities; with consideration of cost effectiveness? Leak detection and repair programme on equipment and fittings handling gases and light organics Progressive installation (to an agreed programme) of high integrity equipment on duties where VOCs of ahigha and amediuma environmental impact (Class A) are handled All occasional vents (safety, maintenance etc.) ducted to storage/recycle or to destructive device such as flare Minimisation at source by measures such as closed process systems, high selectivity processes, recycle or fuel use of purge streams Treatment at the process plant of effluents to a quality that may be adequately treated by conventional water treatment plant Sealing of ground with impermeable layer where spills or leaks may occur e.g. tank bunds Minimisation by process design or by recovery and re-use
Publisher: Environment Agency
Subject Keywords: Pollution control; Petrochemicals; Organics; Bat; Cost of control; Industry economics
Extent: 211
Permalink: http://www.environmentdata.org/archive/ealit:4837
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