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Title: Development of microbiological standards
Author: E.B. Pike
Author: P. Gale
Document Type: Monograph
Abstract:
This is the Final Report covering nearly three years research on this topic. It is timely, because of the need for the NRA to define use-related classes for stretches of water and to implement Statutory Water Quality Objectives. All relevant literature has been reviewed to define the health hazards associated with water recreation. Three classes of illness have been recognised: 1. Waterborne infections - contracted by inhaling or swallowing faecally polluted water. 2. Water-contact illnesses, e.g. cyanobacterial toxicosis, leptospirosis and swimmers itch, which are contracted by contact with water containing the agent but are not directly associated if at all, with faecal pollution. 3. Waterwashed infections, in which prolonged contact with water disturbs the bodys defence mechanisms, allowing opportunistic or transient pathogens on the skin to set up infection. Questionnaire returns from national sports bodies and from clubs have defined the extent of participation in sports and awareness of health hazards and, together with observations in the field, have enabled sports to be classified by the degree of contact with water, i.e. whole-body contact, incidental contact and no contact. National participation in non-contact recreation is three times that in sports involving whole-body and incidental contact with water.
Publisher: National Rivers Authority
Publication Date: 1993
Publication Place: Bristol
Subject Keywords: Directives (European Union)Literature studyWater pollutionToxinsHealth protectionRecreation
Extent: 83; + appendices
Permalink: http://www.environmentdata.org/archive/ealit:2237
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