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Title: Ecotoxicological Methods: Improving Assessments of Complex Effluents - Assessment of Sub-Lethal Fish Toxicity Test Methods
Author: T H Hutchinson
Author: M Hutchings
Author: C R Tyler
Author: Environment Agency
Document Type: Monograph
Annotation: Environment Agency Project ID:EAPRJOUT_1065, Representation ID: 324, Object ID: 2338
The overall objective of Sub-Project 2 of Project P2-202 described in this report is to select and develop long-term (chronic) sub-lethal freshwater and marine fish tests for effluent control and receiving water monitoring. The following conclusions have been drawn from the review of methods for assessing the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to fish: - On the basis of the evaluation procedure used in this review the routine assessment of the toxicities of effluents and receiving waters could currently be carried out using either: - the 7 day embryo test using rainbow trout promulgated by Environment Canada as Method EPS1/RM/28 (Environment Canada 1998) for freshwaters. No comparable test is available using turbot (the preferred species for acute toxicity testing in the DTA Methods Guidelines); - the 7 day larval survival and growth test using freshwater (Pimephales promelas) or estuarine/marine (Cyprinodon variegatus or Menidae beryllina) species promulgated by the United States Environment Agency as Methods 1000.0, 1004.0 and 1006.0 (US EPA 1995a,b); In the medium term there are areas of research that could be pursued to address ethical concerns over the use of fish for testing. These include developing a combined 11 day embryo-larval survival, growth and teratogenicity test (based on the procedures promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as Methods 1000, 1001, 1004, 1005 and 1006) so that additional information is gained from each test. In this revised procedure it is recommended that fish are provided with appropriate food once the test organism reaches a life history stage where it is capable of free feeding. In the medium to long term it is recommended that work is carried out to evaluate whether in vitro assays could be appropriate candidates for replacing acute fish toxicity tests in a screening role so that in vivo tests were used in a confirmatory role where necessary. However, further work is needed to develop a battery of appropriate systems covering different modes of toxic action that have the required level of sensitivity. At this time there is no immediate prospect of in vitro systems being used as surrogates for chronic tests with sublethal endpoints.
Publisher: Environment Agency
Subject Keywords: EffluentsFishesEmbryonic developmentLarvaeJuvenilesAdultsToxicityEstuariesRiversCoastal watersToxicologyPollutionBioassaysBrackishwater environmentFreshwater ecology
Extent: 90
Total file downloads: 276

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