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Title: Targeted Monitoring Programme for Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environment
Author: M J Hilton
Author: K V Thomas
Author: D Ashton
Author: Environment Agency
Document Type: Monograph
Annotation: Environment Agency Project ID:EAPRJOUT_1117, Representation ID: 596, Object ID: 2382
The occurrence and potential adverse effect of pharmaceutical compounds in the aquatic environment is a subject of scientific interest and public awareness. To investigate the potential risk posed to the aquatic environment in England and Wales by pharmaceutical substances, the Environment Agency initially commissioned a review of the information in the literature on the occurrence, fate and effects of human pharmaceuticals in the environment (Ayscough et al. 2000). The agency has subsequently adopted a screening approach based on the EU Technical Guidance document on risk assessment (1996). Pharmaceutical substances have been ranked on their relative risk, to identify those substances that pose the greatest potential risk to the aquatic environment. A number of substances were identified for further research and these were the candidates for a targeted monitoring programme. The Agency commissioned the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) to conduct a targeted monitoring study of twelve of the selected pharmaceutical compounds and pharmaceutical compound metabolites at UK sewage treatment works (STW). The occurrence data generated by this targeted monitoring programme will be used to verify the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) derived during the screening process, reduce the uncertainty associated with the screening process and provide actual data to enable the Environment Agency to better determine potential risk. Analytical methods were developed and validated to determine ng L-1 concentrations of the pharmaceutical compounds trimethoprim, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, acetylsulfamethoxazole, paracetamol, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, erythromycin, dextropropoxyphene, lofepramine, tamoxifen and propranolol in STW effluents and receiving water samples collected over a three month period during 2002. STW final effluent and receiving water samples were collected from Corby, Great Billing, East Hyde, Harpenden and Ryemeads STWs and analysed for the targeted pharmaceuticals. Ibuprofen was detected at the highest concentrations in both the effluents (~27 AMicro L-1) and receiving waters (5 AMicro L-1). The mean concentration of ibuprofen in STW effluents was 4.2 AMicro L-1 at a frequency of 84 % of the effluent samples collected, whilst a mean ibuprofen concentration of 1.1 AMicro L-1 was determined in receiving waters at a frequency of 70 %. Diclofenac was detected at a mean concentration of 0.6 AMicro L-1 in effluents at a frequency of ~90 % and 0.15 AMicro L-1 in receiving waters at a lower frequency. Propranolol was detected in all of the effluent samples collected at a mean concentration of 0.1 AMicro L-1 and in receiving waters at a mean concentration of 0.04 AMicro L-1. Mefenamic acid and dextropropoxyphene were detected in ~75% of the effluent samples collected at mean concentrations of between 0.2 and 0.3 AMicro L-1. Lower concentrations of 0.15 AMicro L-1 for dextropropoxyphene and 0.01 AMicro L-1 for mefenamic acid were determined in receiving waters. Erythromycin, trimethoprim and acetylsulfamethoxazole were determined in approximately a third of the effluent samples collected at mean concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 AMicro L-1, whilst lower mean concentrations were determined in receiving waters. Sulfamethoxazole was detected in only 9 % of the effluent samples collected and in none of the receiving water samples. Paracetamol was not detected in any of the samples collected. The environmental input of each targeted pharmaceutical is also reported using the occurrence data generated by this study and flow data obtained from each STW at the time of sampling. R and D TECHNICAL REPORT P6-012/6/TR i GLOSSARY CAS CRM DCM ESI GFC HPLC LOD MSMS PE PEC RSD SIM SPE STW Chemical abstracts service: A unique number assigned to a chemical compound. Consecutive reaction monitoring Dichloromethane Electrospray ionisation Glass fibre filter High performance liquid chromatography Limit of detection Tandem mass spectrometry Population equivalents Predicted environmental concentration Relative standard deviation Selected ion monitoring Solid phase extraction Sewage treatment works ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The work conducted within this programme was assisted greatly by advice and help provided by Simon Bonney (Anglian Region, Environment Agency), and staff at Anglian and Thames Water who provided access to the sampling sites and additional information. Significant work on the risk prioritisation exercise was conducted by Cranfield University (Alistair Boxall and Chris Sinclair), additional contextual data and interpretation was provided by WRc-NSF Ltd (Chris Watts and Neal Sorokin). The final report was edited by Danielle Ashton. The authors wish to acknowledge their invaluable support for the research programme. R and D TECHNICAL REPORT P6-012/6/TR ii CONTENTS PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY GLOSSARY i ii 1
Publisher: Environment Agency
Subject Keywords: Drugs; Targeted monitoring; Trimethoprim; Diclofenac; Sulfamethoxazole; Sulfamethoxazole acetate; Paracetamol; Mefenamic acid; Ibuprofen; Erythromycin; Dextropropoxyphene; Lofepramine; Tamoxifen; Propranolol.
Extent: 62
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